13, 14, 15a, 16b and d); a considerably more ancient fragment of a terracotta cone of Puzur-Inshushinak (ca. Loftus returned to Warka (1854), and in 1854-55 he worked at Nineveh for the British Museum.More than thirty years after Loftus, Marcel-Auguste Dieulafoy and Jane Dieulafoy were to be the first French investigators of the ruins of Susa.This notification in no way impacts customer's ability to use SLES for VMware past June 25, 2014.
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EXCAVATIONS The excavations of ancient Susa, whose ruins document more than 5,000 years of settlement, themselves have a long history, similar to those of the great Mesopotamian centers of Uruk, Nippur, Babylon, and Nineveh.
During the second campaign (1886), several trenches were dug at the Royal City. However, the technique used for the foundation of this edifice (gravel) and the re-use of elements of Achaemenid architecture make it possible to consider it as a reconstruction of an older monument (see Steve et al., 2002, cols. “It is from these countries,” he was to say later (1905, p. A further discovery was the statue of Napir-Asu, wife of Untash-Napirisha (r. 1340-1300), the builder of the new city of Dur-Untash, which is better known by the modern name of Chogha Zanbil (see ČOḠĀ ZANBIL; Jéquier et al., 1905,pp. The High Terrace may have had an Ur III phase or, more probably, contained a first ziggurat, the remains of which were described as a “nucleus in unbaked bricks and crushed earth” (see, e.g., Soutzo et al., 1911, p. In the same area, but in a particularly unclear context, a rather motley heap was found in 1904, which some described as “foundation offerings,” and others as “funerary deposits.” This included, notably, small lamb bearers in gold and silver, and a sharpening stone with a gold handle in the shape of a lion, as well as many intact or broken objects, jewelry, statuettes, votive arms, utensils, nails (de Morgan et al., 1905, pp. Roland de Mecquenem, a mining engineer who had been introduced to de Morgan by Scheil, arrived at Susa in 1903. 6; regarding this hypothesis, see Steve et al., 2002, cols. Under this palace and down to virgin soil, the excavations revealed hundreds of tombs of the late 4th and the 3rd and 2nd millennia BCE (de Mecquenem et al., 1943, pp. De Mecquenem’s unclear interpretation attributed them all to a “funerary mound” (ibid., p. Soon after were found, toward the western edge of the mound, ordinary interment burials, fragments of Parthian sacophagi, and underground vaults (Mecquenem et al., 1943, pp. In view of the importance of his work at Susa and in Susiana, Ghirshman once more obtained the status of “Delegation” in 1966, under the condition of not making it a pretext to ask for additional credits. When Ghirshman took charge of the Mission in 1946, one of his priorities was to work out a stratigraphy of the recent periods of Susa, a task often neglected by his predecessors.
6), “that we must expect the solution to the great problem of origins.” In 1895, René de Balloy, the French minister in Tehran, acquired from Nāṣer-al-Din Shah the French monopoly for archeological excavations in Persia—the result of ten years of effort and a cost to the treasury of the Third Republic of more than 50,000 francs. 61-136), and perhaps at this time the head of a statue (ibid., p. 448) which, sixty-four years later, joined its body (excavated in 1907) at the Louvre Museum (Spycket, 1968). In 1907-08, virgin soil was reached 28 m under the surface of the Acropolis. He took charge of the excavations in the absence of de Morgan from 1908 to April 1911. In 19, vaulted tombs were found with portraits of heads in polychrome unbaked earth; and during the 1930-31 campaign, a Sasanid coin hoard was discovered (Allotte de la Füye et al., 1934, pp. In the sector of the Donjon, excavations continued between 19, and several sections of an “Achaemenid enclosure” were discovered. 74), but he also pointed out the presence of other structures, housing, and non-funerary objects (ibid., pp. Despite the muddled presentation of the remains, the Donjon provides the earliest testimonies of a population at Susa outside its earliest centers, the Acropolis and the Apadāna; the Royal City was to expand gradually from this nucleus. More modest worksites were opened here from 1926 on (de Mecquenem, 1980, p. During the 1932-33 season, tesserae were excavated from soundings near the center of the hill (Allotte de la Füye et al., 1934, p. He regularly published preliminary reports in the (vols. He therefore opened the great stratigraphic site “VR A” north of the “Royal City,” which was to reveal Islamic, Sasanid, Parthian-Hellenistic, and Achaemenid levels (I-VIII); farther down, he found Neo-Elamite tombs dug out from a Neo- or Meso-Elamite level (IX), two further Meso-Elamite levels (X and XI) and four from the Sukkalmah period (ca.
Within the precinct of the Tomb of Daniel, he noticed small capitals of the Achaemenid type, and near the same monument, on the bank of the Šāhur (Šāvur, Šāur) river, several large steps of a stone staircase.
These remnants resembled the six steps of another staircase discovered in 1976 by an inhabitant of the modern city (see Boucharlat and Shahidi, 1987), about 1400 m north of those discovered by Layard. At the “Acropolis” (Layard’s “great mound”), Layard rapidly copied the cuneiform inscription engraved on a “marble slab,” after which the guides urged him to leave the place, alleging fear of an imminent attack by the Bani Lām.
Churchill, the surveyor and interpreter of the British delegation, provided the first map of the site (Loftus, 1857,opposite p. The excavations started in 1851; the first campaign was directed by Williams, the second (1852) by Loftus, under the supervision of now Colonel Henry Rawlinson.
The four principal hills of Susa were summarily distinguished as follows: “Šušān the Palace” (which later became the Apadāna), the “Citadel” (Acropolis), the “Great Platform” (the Royal City), and the “Ruins of City” (the Artisans’ City).
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